Risk of Miscarriage: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Support

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risk of miscarriage

Risk of Miscarriage

The main risk of miscarriage is often not identified, although there are many reasons behind it, and it can be said that miscarriage during the first trimester of pregnancy is mostly due to problems in the fetus itself, but if it occurs after the first three months, it may be associated with the mother’s suffering from a particular health problem, and the reasons for the abortion will be explained in some detail as follows.

Genetic disorders and birth defects

Genes are the primary unit of inheritance, which determines the physical characteristics of a human being, such as sex, blood type, hair color, and eyes, and are carried on small chromosomes inside cells, so the appearance of disturbances in chromosomes in the father’s sperm or mother’s egg.

It may be a cause of abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy, or even during the first half of pregnancy, and genetic disorders and other birth defects can cause the death of the denied after 20 weeks of pregnancy, and these genetic disorders often appear spontaneously and by chance, so that they are not related to the health of the mother or father.

This is done as a result of errors occurring during the growth and division of fetal cells, the fetus does not develop properly and abortion occurs. It should be noted that genetic disorders may be inherited in some cases. It should be made clear that genetic possession of these genes does not necessarily mean preventing the mother from successfully conceive, but may increase the risk of miscarriage, In general, genetic disorders can lead to several problems, as mentioned in the following:

Intrauterine fetal demise, in which case the fetus is naturally formed, but stops developing and dies before any symptoms of pregnancy loss appear.

Cluster pregnancy: Molar pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy are not viable and complete, and are among the conditions that may be associated with cancerous changes in the mother’s placenta, where cluster pregnancy is produced when both sets of fetal chromosomes come from the father rather than being One is mother and father, resulting in an abnormal growth in the placenta without development in the fetus, but in the case of semi-cluster pregnancy.

Damaged egg: Blighted ovum, a common type of miscarriage, appears early in pregnancy, i.e. between the fifth and sixth weeks, which is not enough time to achieve the fetal vision through ultrasound, and usually causes miscarriage before realizing As a pregnant woman, the damaged egg is formed as a result of high levels of fetal chromosome abnormalities, which means that the fertilized egg does not grow and develop into a fetus, and this prevents the embryo from developing healthily, and this condition appears as the development of a group of cells in the uterus in the form of an empty carrying bag.

Trisomy: a condition in which an embryo has an additional chromosome, is known to have a normal number of chromosomes in the human body of 23 pairs, or 46 chromosomes in the outcome, and the likelihood of aborting the 47-chromosome fetus is increased, but if the pregnancy continues successfully, the fetus is born with congenital abnormalities that may be caused by Down syndrome.

The absence of a pair full of identical chromosomes: known as nullisomy, a condition in which an embryo lacks a pair of chromosomes, and therefore does not grow normally and leads to miscarriage.

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The absence of a chromosome: known as monosomy, in which the fetus loses one chromosome, i.e. it has 45 chromosomes in the outcome instead of 46, often leading to miscarriage; except in rare cases where pregnancy continues, and if the pregnancy is completed, the fetus is born with a particular congenital deformity or may continue outside the uterus for a short time.

Chemical load

Chemical pregnancy, or so-called biochemical pregnancy, leads to miscarriage at an early stage of pregnancy, specifically after the baby is immersed in the uterus; They are not severe, and it is possible to confuse them with the symptoms of the normal menstrual cycle, such as abdominal pain or uterine bleeding, and therefore women may not know if they have a pregnancy if they do not have a pregnancy examination, bearing in mind that the imaging does not appear the fetus when the imaging is performed at these stages of pregnancy, so it can be said that it is possible for a woman to experience a chemical pregnancy and abort it without realizing it.

Placenta problems

The placenta is defined as a large organ that develops during pregnancy, mostly connected to the top or side of the uterine wall, and the umbilical cord connects the fetus to the placenta, and the placenta’s role is to transfer blood from mother to child to provide it with its need for oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients, So it’s very important for the development and development of the fetus,

This means that problems with the placenta can sometimes lead to miscarriage, including:

Detoxification: The mother may sometimes transport some toxic substances for the fetus or to pregnancy tissues, leading to problems with the placenta, including alcohol, excess caffeine, some environmental substances, unauthorized drugs during pregnancy, and drugs.

Transfer of harmful cells: The mother may sometimes transfer some harmful cells to the tissues of the pregnancy or fetus; these cells are caused by infection or chronic uncontrolled health conditions.

Placental insufficiency: where abnormal growth of the placenta stops the blood supply to the child, affecting its development and development, This condition prevents the ability to supply the fetus with sufficient amounts of hormones, antibodies, oxygen, and nutrients, and it should be noted that placental deficiencies occur in particular if the placenta does not grow sufficiently to support and maintain the fetus, sometimes when a woman is pregnant with twins from embryos instead of a single embryo.

Cervical insufficiency

Cervical incompetence can usually lead to miscarriage during the second trimester of pregnancy because the cervix can’t retain pregnancy, and some symptoms may often appear before an miscarriage occurs, such as sudden pressure, fetal water drop-out, and the release of certain fetal or placental tissue without pain.

Uterine problems

The likelihood of miscarriage during the second trimester of pregnancy increases if there are problems in the uterus, such as the irregular shape of the uterus so that it contains limited space in addition to growth in it called fibroids, Some of these problems are mentioned below:

Bicornuate uterus, where the uterus can be likened to the heart, and its presence increases the risk of miscarriage and premature birth but does not cause any difficulties in women towards pregnancy or any problems in the early stages of pregnancy.

Unicornuate womb: in which case the size of the uterus does not exceed half the normal size, is a rare condition, which occurs as a result of the failure of the growth of one side of the uterus, and its presence increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy, late pregnancy miscarriage, and premature birth.

Septate womb, in this case, the uterus is described as having a muscle wall starting from the center of the uterus and dividing it into two parts, so that this wall completely or partially separates the uterus, resulting in an increased risk of suffering from several problems, such as difficulty in pregnancy, miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy, and premature birth.

An arcuate womb is somewhat similar to a normal uterus with a curvature or decline at the top, sometimes leading to an increased risk of miscarriage in the second trimester of pregnancy, without causing an increased risk of miscarriage in the first trimester or premature birth.

Chronic health conditions

Chronic health conditions increase the likelihood of pregnancy complications, which may cause miscarriages during the second trimester of pregnancy, the most prominent of which are:

  • Non-controlled cases of diabetes or gestational diabetes.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Hormone problems.
  • Obesity.
  • Crohn’s disease.
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Celiac disease.
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  • Polycystic ovary syndrome is the result of hormonal changes in females, with a number of cysts inside the ovary, making the ovaries larger than normal.
  • Severe or insufficiently controlled thyroid problems: hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  • Thrombophilia is a genetic disease that causes increased blood clots and may result in recurrent miscarriages late in pregnancy.
  • Other health disorders, such as chronic kidney disease, lupus erythematosus, and high blood pressure, as a pregnant woman’s incidence of any such disorders and lack of treatment during pregnancy, may lead to an increased risk of miscarriage.

Medicines

Initially, it should be noted that a woman should consult her doctor before using any type of medication or prescription during pregnancy, as there are some medications that require a doctor to consider the benefits and potential harms that may affect the mother and child as a result of their use.

Their use may lead to miscarriage or congenital malformations, given the possibility that their components may cross the fetus through the placenta, and it should be noted that safety trials of modern medicines often do not include the category of pregnant women, and therefore cannot be determined to be fully safe to use during pregnancy. The most prominent medications that increase the risk of miscarriage are mentioned:

  • Misoprostol commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Retinoids, which are used in cases of skin disorders, such as acne and eczema.
  • Methotrexate, which is used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs used to relieve infections and pain, such as ibuprofen.

Infection

In fact, the mild infection may affect the fetus causing miscarriage, and miscarriage may occur if a woman suffers from infections that severely worsen her health. The most prominent forms of infection that may cause miscarriage are mentioned:

Bacterial vaginosis is an increase in the growth of naturally present bacteria in the vagina, which may result in an increased risk of miscarriage during the second trimester of pregnancy.

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Rubella, a mild type of infection that can be recovered without long-term effects, although infection during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, birth of a birth defect, and pregnant immune system is generally examined at the first time to the doctor, and this infection can be prevented by receiving a triple graft that includes measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. (Mumps, Rubella vaccine) and abbreviation (MMR Vaccine).

Malaria is transmitted by exposure to a pathogen-carrying mosquito, and the patient develops a range of symptoms, such as fever, chills, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and body pain, usually treated with antiparasitic. However, the treatment plan depends mainly on the severity of the condition, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published that pregnant women are about three times more likely to develop severe infections, which in itself increases the risk of premature birth, miscarriage, and low-weight fetal birth.

Dengue Fever is the most common mosquito-borne infection, causing a range of mild symptoms, such as fever, aches, and pain, which can lead to a rash, usually recovered within two to seven days, and although the relationship between them and miscarriage is not known, a pregnant woman may lead to her being transferred to the fetus and having an miscarriage.

Food poisoning

Food poisoning occurs as a result of eating contaminated foods, which may increase the risk of miscarriage in pregnant women, in which it is recommended to keep the pregnant woman safe when dealing with foods, avoid eating the types of foods in which infection is likely to occur, keep your hands clean and wash them well, and here are some foods that may cause food poisoning:

Raw or partially cooked eggs due to the possibility that salmonella may contain salmonella, which can cause food poisoning.

Undercooked meat, which can cause toxoplasmosis. Some fresh dairy products and unpasteurized dairy products, such as cow’s milk cheese known as blue cheese, are likely to contain listeria bacteria that can cause listeria.

Other reasons

miscarriage may occur as a result of other factors that are considered rare to cause miscarriage compared to the factors described earlier, including:

  • Histamine intolerance.
  • Uterine fibroids.
  • Asherman’s syndrome is the occurrence of adhesions or scarring in the uterus.

Miscarriage risk factors

There are many factors that increase the risk of miscarriage, which may include the causes and factors described above, as well as other factors, the most prominent of which are:

  • Previous exposure to miscarriage; the risk of miscarriage increases in women who have had two or more consecutive abortions in the past.
  • Smoking, alcoholism, or drugs.
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  • Invasive prenatal tests, including genetic tests such as Chorionic villus sampling and Amniocentesis, may have a low risk of miscarriage.
  • Age, as pregnant women aged 35 years or over are at increased risk of miscarriage compared to pregnant women of a younger age. In 2019, the British Medical Journal published a statistic showing that the risk of miscarriage in women aged 25-29 was about 10% while rising rapidly beyond the age of 30 to 53% among those aged 45 or over.
  • Women have less or higher weight than normal before pregnancy.
  • Take more than 200 mg of caffeine on a daily basis. Rh incompatibility is incompatible; it occurs if the rhesus factor in the pregnant woman is positive and the fetus is negative.
  • Fever, the risk of miscarriage increases if the pregnant woman warms up to 37.8°C or more.
  • Converging loads; in cases where the last full pregnancy period is less than 6 months later, this is accompanied by a slightly higher risk of miscarriage, and converging loads may increase the incidence of premature birth, and although evidence is mixed, it is recommended that the uterus be given an adequate recovery period after pregnancy.
  • Exposure to toxins and environmental hazards, as the risk of miscarriage, was found to increase when exposed to certain substances, such as lead, mercury, organic solvents, or ionizing radiation, and it should be noted that these toxins are usually in work environments, farms or factory facilities.
  • Sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis and some types of viral hepatitis.
  • Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, or vitamin A levels are low, as this can negatively affect pregnancy and increase the likelihood of miscarriage.

Prevention of miscarriage

As noted earlier, miscarriage may occur as a result of difficult-to-prevent factors, such as chromosome disorders, but if miscarriage is caused by a manageable problem, it is recommended to follow the procedures and treatments that enable it to be controlled Abortion prevention methods can be summarized as follows:

Regular access to medical care during pregnancy through a doctor’s review is the best way to prevent many pregnancy problems and complications. Avoid exposure to previously indicated miscarriage risk factors.

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Diagnosis of chronic medical problems that may cause pre-pregnancy abortion, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, while taking care to follow the methods and treatments that enable them to be controlled, including ensuring that sugar levels are examined periodically, reducing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to medications prescribed by your doctor, as prevention and treatment of these diseases contribute to improving the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy experience.

Ensure a healthy environment for pregnancy and maintain it throughout pregnancy to ensure that the baby grows as healthy as possible, and this can be achieved by following the following steps:

  • Avoid smoking and its places.
  • Consult your doctor before taking any medications or prescriptions.
  • Reducing the amount of caffeine consumed.
  • Avoid environmental risks.

Avoid sports that require physical contact and activities that carry the risk of injuries. A healthy lifestyle, balanced food, this can be achieved by following the following:

  • Follow a healthy diet that includes 5 servings of fruits and vegetables on a daily basis and contains sufficient amounts of folic acid and calcium, while adhering to taking vitamins prescribed by your doctor.
  • Exercise regularly after consulting a doctor with appropriate types of exercise for the pregnant woman.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid eating uncooked meats, soft, unpasteurized cheeses, and foods that can cause food poisoning.

Find out the family’s pathological and genetic history. Be careful to receive the restaurants recommended by your doctor to the woman.

Contact your doctor when some symptoms appear, such as fever, bleeding, bloodstains, abdominal pain, low fetal movement, or feeling that a woman’s health has become worse.

Undergo an stD screening before you take the step of pregnancy if there are doubts about exposure, or if symptoms appear, such as vaginal itching, vaginal discharge, or pain when urinating.

Misconceptions about miscarriage

Here are some things that are believed to increase the risk of miscarriage, although this is consistently incorrect:

  • The mother’s emotional state, such as psychological stress or depression.
  • Experience a traumatic or frightening accident during pregnancy.
  • Lifting weights or making effort during pregnancy.
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  • Practice marital relationships during pregnancy. Use contraceptive medications before the current pregnancy occurs.
  • Morning sickness.
  • Exercise, including high intensity, such as cycling and jogging, taking into account the need for your doctor to discuss it before starting.
  • Continuing to work during pregnancy; the pregnant woman does not necessarily have to stop doing her work even if it involves standing or sitting for long periods.
  • Air travel.
  • Eat spicy and marinated foods.

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