What is Prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that specifically affects men, especially as they age. Learn about the symptoms of prostate cancer in this article.
Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland, which is responsible for producing semen, which is important for nourishing sperm. This type of cancer grows slowly and is initially confined to the prostate gland, and may not cause any harm in the early stages.
However, if prostate cancer is detected early and in its early stages, the chances of a cure and a cure are higher.
Prostate cancer symptoms
In general, prostate cancer in the early stages does not have any distinct symptoms, so the disease may lie dormant for years until it is discovered during regular and regular examinations. The main reason why there are no obvious symptoms of prostate cancer is due to the way cancer grows. You may notice some symptoms if cancer grows near the urethra and puts pressure on it, the tube that carries urine out of the body.
Read also: 9 Risk Factors For Breast Cancer
But in contrast, prostate cancer usually begins in different areas of the gland and does not cause pressure on the urethra.
Prostate cancer may be associated with the following symptoms:
symptoms of advanced prostate cancer
- Pain and burning when urinating.
- Difficulty urinating, either starting or stopping.
- An increased desire to urinate during the night.
- Urinary incontinence and total loss of bladder control.
- Decreased urine flow.
- Presence of blood in urine or semen.
- difficulty having an erection
- Pain when ejaculating.
- Increased pressure on the rectum.
- Pain and a feeling of cramping in the lower back.
- Feeling of not completely emptying the bladder.
- If you have advanced prostate cancer, you may experience these symptoms:
- Pain in the back, pelvis, hips, thighs, and feet.
- Erection problems, becoming weak.
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Presence of blood in semen or urine.
- Pain in the bones that does not go away or leads to fractures.
It is worth noting that you should consult a doctor if any of the above symptoms appear.
stage 1 prostate cancer symptoms
Stage 1: Cancer cells are present, but the tumor is small and affects only one area. Gleason score and PSA level are low. There may be no noticeable symptoms at this stage. A digital rectal exam (DRE) or ultrasound will not reveal the tumor. PSA is below 10. The grade is group 1, and the Gleason score is 6 or less. Cancer can be detected with regular screening at this stage, which makes early treatment possible.
stage 2 prostate cancer symptoms
Stage 2: Medical exams may not reveal a tumor, but as this stage progresses, the doctor may discover changes during a DRE or rectal ultrasound. The cancer has not spread outside the prostate gland. The PSA score ranges between 10-20. The tumor is in grade 1 stage I, rising to 3 in later stages of stage 2. Gleason’s score is 6, and it increases to 7 or 8.
Prostate cancer causes
There may not be a clear cause of prostate cancer, but there may be some factors that may lead to prostate cancer, and we will address the most important of these causes through the following lines, which are as follows:
- One of the main causes of prostate cancer is the presence of mutations in the DNA of cells that make defects in cells that grow and divide faster. The accumulating abnormal cells thus form a tumor that can metastasize and spread to other nearby tissues. Some abnormal cells can also break off and spread to other parts of the body.
- The risk of prostate cancer may increase with age.
- Dark-skinned men carry a greater risk of prostate cancer than men of other skin.
- Family and medical history. If men in your family have had prostate cancer, you may be more likely to develop this type of cancer. Also, if you have a family history of genes that may increase your risk of prostate cancer.
- Being obese and overweight are more likely to develop an advanced condition that is difficult to treat.
- Narrowing of the urethra, thus reducing the flow of urine, and this is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it is not the same as prostate cancer.
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
There are many diagnostic methods used by the oncologist to detect symptoms of prostate cancer, in order to develop an appropriate treatment plan for each case. Among the diagnostic methods are as follows:
- Performing a digital rectal exam, to detect any abnormalities in the gland tissue, or its shape or size to develop an appropriate treatment plan.
- A blood sample is drawn from a vein in the arm to be analyzed to detect prostate-specific antigen, a substance naturally produced by the prostate gland. It is normal for a small amount of PSA to be present in the bloodstream. If a higher than normal level is detected, this may indicate an infection of the prostate, inflammation, enlargement, a tumor or cancer.
- The use of ultrasound through the rectum. A prostate biopsy can be done by inserting a thin needle into the prostate and collecting a small piece of prostate tissue. The tissue sample is examined in the laboratory; This is to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
- The doctor uses an ultrasound through the rectum to evaluate the prostate.
- The probe uses sound waves to create a multiple image of the prostate gland.
- Collecting a sample of prostate tissue. If initial test results suggest prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend collecting a sample of prostate cells (prostate biopsy) by inserting a thin needle into the prostate to collect tissue. It also examines the tissue sample in the laboratory to determine whether there are cancerous cells or not.
- Integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to aid prostate biopsy and diagnosis more and more.
Prostate cancer treatment methods
There are many treatment methods adopted by the oncologist, and the appropriate treatment plan is determined by conducting the most important examinations, which include the following:
- Follow-up and close monitoring: This is done by observing and following up the growth of cancer and by taking biopsies, to be checked regularly, in addition to doing some blood tests, a rectal examination, and treating the cancer if it is growing or has developed, or has caused any symptoms.
- Surgical treatment: This is done by removing the prostate, some surrounding tissues, and a few lymph nodes.
- Radiation therapy: where a beam of high-energy rays is used to kill cancer, and it is of two types: internal and external (local).
- Cryotherapy: Cryoablation works by freezing tissue, thus killing cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy: through the use of some special drugs; Which may reduce the size of the cancer or destroy it. Medicines can be in the form of pills, needles, or using both methods.
- Biological therapy: It focuses on the body’s immune system; This is to help it fight cancer, or control the side effects and complications of other treatments.
- the use of high intensity ultrasound; To destroy and kill cancer cells.
- Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy prevents cancer cells from getting the hormones they may need to grow and spread.
Prostate cancer prevention methods
There may not be a specific way to prevent prostate cancer, but there may be some factors that can avoid diseases and prevent exposure to this type of cancer:
- Pay attention to choosing a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and avoid eating foods rich in fat.
- Choose healthy foods rather than supplements and medications as they play an important role in reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods rich in vitamins and minerals.
- Exercising helps maintain your weight and improves your mood. People who don’t exercise are more likely to have elevated PSA levels and develop prostate cancer.
- Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising most days of the week and reducing the number of calories you eat daily.
In the end
At the end of this article, we recommend seeking medical help if there are no changes in the nature of the body and feeling the symptoms of prostate cancer that were mentioned previously. Treatment at anywhere primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of symptoms of prostate cancer and how to control the accompanying symptoms for him.
It was also clarified in this article about ways to treat the symptoms of prostate cancer and its most important causes. If you encounter any question or inquiry, do not hesitate to send it to be answered as soon as possible.